This past week’s theme in regards to my reading seems to be the revisiting of old favorites from my “formative years” (early 20s) – Huxley’s Island, Hume’s Inquiry, Sagan’s Pale Blue Dot, Pynchon’s The Crying of Lot 49 (post coming soon), and after last night’s post, and in keeping with the trend, I went back and reread Blake’s The Marriage of Heaven and Hell.
This work is Blake’s attempt at presenting to us, in true Romanticist fashion, an argument against the dualist, Manichaean, view of good and evil which characterized Christian Europe. Deliberately upsetting the common understanding of those very definitions of good and evil, and dark and light, Blake begins by blurring the lines. He writes,
Without Contraries is no progression. Attraction and Repulsion, Reason and Energy, Love and Hate, are necessary to Human existence.
From these contraries spring what the religious call Good & Evil. Good is the passive that obeys Reason. Evil is the active springing from Energy.
Good is Heaven. Evil is Hell.
And just a few lines later he adds,
Energy is Eternal Delight.
He opens this work by presenting the argument that humans are, and should be, both angels and devils, both reason and passion. To deny either part is to deny our humanity. It is in these contradictions, and it is in these grey areas that we find our humanity.
The entire work, which often mimics the structures of biblical passages and prophecies, fuses the sacred and the profane, the divine and the fallen, and the spiritual and the material; in effect, a “marriage” of heaven and hell. Blake, unlike Dante (who also uses the literary device of imagining himself visiting hell) presents hell as a place of poetry, energy, and exuberance – a place the speaks to our passions and our physicality. Heaven, on the other hand, is a place of reason, restrained passions, and “unacted desires.” For Blake, neither is inherently evil nor inherently good.
The head Sublime, the heart Pathos, the genitals Beauty, the hands & feet Proportion.
As the air to a bird or the sea to a fish, so is contempt to the contemptible.
The crow wish’d every thing was black, the owl, that every thing was white.
Exuberance is Beauty.
Blake beautifully express the Romantic desire to recapture the irrational element in man, something that the Enlightenment had effectively, according to Blake, killed off (he regarded the philosophes as “unimaginative killers of the human spirit”). Echoing this idea, in another poem, “A Little Girl Lost,” Blake writes,
Children of the future age,
Reading this indignant page;
Know that in a former time,
Love! sweet love! was thought a crime.
Isaiah Berlin, in his book The Roots of Romanticism, in Proustian fashion, attempts to define Romanticism. He writes,
Romanticism is the primitive, the untutored, it is youth, the exuberant sense of life of the natural man, but it is also pallor, fever, disease, decadence. . . It is the strange, the exotic, the grotesque, phantoms, vampires, nameless terror, the irrational, the unutterable. . . It is nostalgia, it is reverie, it is intoxicating dreams, it is sweet melancholy and bitter melancholy. . . It is energy, force, will, étalage du moi. . . It is Satanic revels, cynical irony, diabolical laughter, black heroes, but also Blake’s vision of God and his angels, the great Christian society, the eternal order, and ‘the starry heavens which can scarce express the infinite and eternal of the Christian soul.’ It is, in short, unity and multiplicity.
In The Marriage of Heaven and Hell, Blake illustrates this definition eloquently and elegantly. By “marrying” heaven and hell, by blurring our perceptions of what is base and what is sacred, Blake shows us that our very souls exist in this “unity and multiplicity.” He is a true spokesman for his age when he calls our attention to the inherent “sturm und drang” (storm and stress) of human experience.
Also in true Romantic style, Blake not only blurs the lines between good and evil, but also between man and God. He writes,
And at length they pronounc’d that the Gods had order’d such things.
Thus men forgot that All deities reside in the human breast.
Which is reminiscent of this quote by Sagan, from his Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors,
God is an invention of Man. So the nature of God is only a shallow mystery. The deep mystery is the nature of Man.
Let the Priests of the Raven of dawn, no longer in deadly black, with hoarse note curse the sons of joy. Nor his accepted brethren, whom, tyrant, he calls free: lay the bound or build the roof. Nor pale religious letchery call that virginity, that wishes but acts not!
For every thing that lives is Holy.